Materi Ajar B.Inggris



Inti dari text/genre berbentuk hortatory exposition adalah text yang memaparkan dan mempengaruhi pembaca/pendengar bahwa sesuatu seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian.

Istilah-istilah yang perlu diperhatikan :
Ø Generic human & non human participant: yang diceritakan bersifat umum/general (bias apa saja) yang penting bias mempengaruhi audience.
Ø Mental Process : disebut juga “Thinking Verb” yaitu kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan persepsi panca indera / persepsi batiniah, misalnya: guest, think, feel, dsb.
Ø Material Process : disebut juga “Action Verb” yaitu kata kerja yang mengacu pada aksi atau tindakan dari si tokoh, misalnya : makan (eat, ate, eaten), tidur (sleep, slept), berenang (swim, swam,swum)
Ø Relational Process : disebut juga dengan istilah “Linking Verb” (Kata Kerja penghubung) yang berguna untuk menghubungkan subjek dengan pelengkap ( sbg subject complement).


Social Function/ Communication Approach/ Purpose: to persuade the reader or the listener that something should or should not be the case.

Generic Structure/ Text Organisation:
Ø a Thesis (announcement of  issue  concern)
Ø Arguments (giving reasons for concern, leading to recommendation) .
Ø Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen)

Language Features:
Ø Focus on generic human and non human participant, except for speaker or writer referring to self.
Ø Use of Mental Process
Ø Use of Material Process
Ø Use of Relational Process
Ø Use of Simple Present Tense
Ø Use compound and complex sentences

A. Text Modelling
Read the following text carefully
Generic Structure
Announcement of issue concern
Reasons for concern that lead to recommendation



Statement of what ought or ought not to happen


Crime is a serious problem in big cities and it is getting worse every year. This is what police departments around the country said in their reports last week. The subways are more danger­ous. The streets are more dangerous. You may not even be safe in your own home.
Why is the problem so serious now? This is not an easy question to answer. There may not be a single answer. Many problems seem to make cities so dangerous.
One of the problems is money. To fight crime a city needs police officers, cars and guns. These cost a lot of money. But right now cities do not have much extra money. So, there are not enough police officers, cars and guns for the cities.
Another problem is drugs. Crime studies show that many criminals use and sell drugs. After they start taking drugs, they want to have more. How ever, drugs are very expensive. So, these people may sell drugs to other people to make money or they may steal money to get more drugs.
There is an even more important cause of crime. Cities have rich and poor neighborhoods. In the poor neighborhoods, jobs are hard to find. Many young people don't have much hope for a better life. They only know one way to make a better living for themselves. That way is to sell drugs or steal. So, some of these young people become criminals.
It is not going to be easy to change these crime problems. We must first change many of the laws about drugs. We must change the way cities spend their money. Until then, the crime problem will not go away and we will live our Jive in fear.

Should ads be banned from TV programs ?
Dear Editor,
We are writing  to complaint about ads on TV. There are so many ads, especially during our favourite programs. We think they should be stopped for a number of reasons.
First, ads are a nuisance. They go on for a long time and there are so many. Sometimes there seems to be too many ads in one program.
Second, ads are a bad influence on people. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beer, soft drink, candy and chips. And they make people want things they do not really need and cannot afford. It can lead to consumerism.
Finally, the people who make ads have too much say in what programs people watch. That is because they want to put  all their ads on popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some programs that are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads, even though those programs may be someone’s favourite.
For those reasons, we think your TV station should sto showing ads. They interrupt programs. They are a bad influence on people, and they are sometimes put  a stop to people’s fovourite shows. We are sick of ads, and now we mostly watch other channels
Masrani S.W

Answer these questions.
1. 1. Who wrote this letter to editor ?
2. Who is the letter addressed to?
3. What is the purpose of the writer writing this letter?
4. How many reasons did he mention to support his argument?
5. What do you call this text?
6. Which part of the text contains the. advice of the writer to do something better ?
7.    What is the difference between an analytical and a hortatory exposition?

Analytical Exposition

Inti dari text/genre berbentuk Analytical Exposition adalah teks yang memaparkan / berisi ajakan pada pembaca atau pendengar bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. Misalnya, pentingnya belajar bahasa Inggris, pentingnya perpustakaan,dsb.

Istilah- istilah penting yang perlu diketahui dalam Analitycal Exposition Genre :
Ø Generic human & non human participant: yang diceritakan bersifat umum/general (bisa apa saja) yang penting bias mempengaruhi audience
Ø Relational Process : disebut juga dengan istilah “Linking Verb” (Kata Kerja penghubung) yang berguna untuk menghubungkan subjek dengan pelengkap ( sbg subject.
Ø Causal Conjunction : Konjungsi / kata penghubung yang menerangkan sebab/ asal muasal suatu kejadian, contohnya: because, because of, since, for.
Ø Internal conjunction :

An analytical exposition text is designed to persuade the reader or listener that something in case or to analyse or explain.
Social Function/ Communication Approach/ Purpose :
Ø to persuade by presenting arguments
Ø to analyse or explain

Generic Structure / Text Organization :

1. Thesis
v Position : Introduces topic and indicates writer’s position.
v Preview :  Outlines the main arguments to be presented.

2. Arguments Point
v Point : restate main arguments outlined in preview.
v Elaboration : develops and supports each point/argument

3. Reiteration : Restates writer’s  position

Language Features:
Ø Focus on generic human and non human participant
Ø Use of Relational Process
Ø Use of  Internal Conjunction to state argument such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore
Ø Use compound and complex sentences
Ø Use Causal Conjunction
Ø Use of present tense

1. Text Modelling
Read the following text carefully

Do you know if you are too fat, you may have serious problems with your health? A group of doctors wrote a report about some of the effects of too much fat.
One important effect is on the heart. If you are fat, your heart has to work harder. This may lead to a heart attack; or it may lead to other heart problem.
In addition, extra fat can also change the amount of sugar in your blood. This can cause serious disease such as diabetes.

Furthermore high blood pressure is another possible
result of being fat.
More studies are needed about all these problems but one thing is clear, extra fat may make your life shorter.

Read the following text carefully.

The Important of English Language
I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say  that ?

Firstly, English is an International language. It is spoken by many people all over the world, either as a first or second language.
Secondly, English is also the key to opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge which is needed for the economic and politics development of many countries in the world.
Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favourable than those who don’t.
From the facts above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era.

Answer the questions:

1. What language is the most important in the world?
2. Mention the reasons why English becomes an important lan­guage? I
3. What words are used to begin: telling the reasons?
4. "English is the world's most important language" Does this statement belong to many people's or to one person's idea? How do you know that?
5. What is the purpose of the text?
6. Do you think that everybody will agree with the writer's opinion?
7. The statement in the beginning of the text is repeated again in the…..….of the text.  What is the purpose of repetition?
8. What kind of genre does this text belong to?
9. What tense is mostly used in the text?


Inti dari text genre adalah SPOOF biasanya menceritakan sebuah kejadian (lucu) yang diakhirnya terdapat hal yang tidak diduga diharapkan oleh tokoh cerita. Sesuatu yang tidak terduga dan tidak sesuai dengan harapan si tokoh ini disebut dengan istilah TWIST. Hal itulah yang membedakan antara SPOOF dan ANEKDOTE. Anecdote itu sendiri biasanya menceritakan kejadian yang aneh dan jarang sekali terjadi.

Istilah-istilah penting dalam SPOOF Genre:
ü Individual participant: tokoh cerita bersifat atau perseorangan, tidak berlaku begi semua orang.
ü Material Process: disebut juga dengan istilah “verb action” yaitu kata kerja yang mengacu pada aksi atau tindakan dari si tokoh, misalnya: makan (eat/ate/eaten), tidur (sleep/slept), berenang (swim/swam/swum), dll.
ü Temporal conjunction/temporal circumstance: konjungsi/kata penghubung waktu yang menghubungkan kejadian satu dengan yang lain, misalnya: firstly, then, next, afterthat, meanwhile, at this time, etc.
ü Place circumstance: lingkungan atau tempat peristiwa.


Social function/communicative approach/purpose: to retell an event with humorous twist.

Generic structure/text organization
v Orientation: sets and scene
v Events: tell what happened
v Twist: provide the punch line to be funny because of unexpected result

Language features:
v Focus on individual  participants
v Circumstance of time and place
v Use of material processes (action verbs) to tell what happened
v Use of past tense
We Don’t Subscribe Any Newspapers
Jack was a university student. He studied history.

At the end of his first year, he failed in his examinations and he was told to leave the university.

The next day Jack’s father went to see the professor; he urged the Professor to let Jack continue his studies the following year. “He’s good boy”, said Jack’s father,” and if you let him pass this time, I’m sure he’ll improve a lot next year and pass the examination at the end of the year well.

“No, no! That’s quite impossible!” replied the professor, “Do you know, last month l asked him when Napoleon died, and he could not answer it”.

“Please, Sir, give him another chance,” said Jack’s father, “You see, we don’t subscribe any newspapers in our house, so none of us even knew that Napoleon was ill”.


Answer these questions.
1. Why did Jack have to leave the university?
2. What did his father try to do?
3. What example did the professor give to show how bad a student Jack was?
4. Which part is funny? Why is it funny?


Complete the story below with the words provided in the box !
One day Nasreddin went to a (1)_______ . He was (2)_______ old (3)_______ when he came, nobody looked at him and nobody gave him (4)_______ so Nasreddin went home and (5)_______ his best  clothes and went back to the party.

The (6)_______ at once got up and came to meet him. He (7)_______him the best table and gave him a good seat and (8)_______him the (9)______.

Nasreddin sat and (10)_______ his coat. He put it in on the foot and said, “Eat coat!” the guests were very (11)_______ and asked him, “What are you doing, Nasreddin?”

“When 1 came here with my old clothes, nobody looked at me. Then I went home and came back in my best clothes and you gave me the (12)_______ so you gave food to my clothes instead of me.

wearing    a seat   dinner party
put off    clothes   host
best food and drink  offered   best food
put on    surprised  gave
Text 1
One day, seven worms were walking happily. Their mother was leading them. They had just had their breakfast on a big tree near the river. “Come on. Children. Let’s go home, “ mama worm said.
Suddenly, a cricket said, “your last child is ugly!” ”Ugly?” asked mama worm. She looked at the child. He was not the same as her ot her children. “Hey, ugly!”she said, “You are not my child. Go away!”
The little brown worm walked away. He was very sad. When he was near a lake, he talked into the lake.
“Oh, how ugly I am,” he cried.
“You are not ugly, “said a voice, ‘Oh, I find you my child.”
The worm looked around. There was a beautiful big caterpillar and her children. They looked as the same as he.
“They may call you ugly,” said mother Caterpillar, “ you are the most beautiful child in the world. One day, you will turn into a beautiful butterfly.”.

01. This text is in the form of.......
a. expository
b. spoof
c. recount
d. narrative
e. discussion

02. The major complication reveals in.......
a. paragraph 1
b. paragraph 2
c. paragraph 3
d. paragraph 4
e. paragraph 5

03. The organization of the text is.........
a. orientation-complication-resolution
b. orientation-events-reorientation
c. thesis-arguments-recommendation
d. orientation-events-twist
e. abstract-orientation-crisis-reaction-coda

04.The writer mostly express the real words of the speaker
a. simple past tense
b. indirect speech
c. direct speech
d. passive voice
e. simple present tense

05. The social function the text is .........
a. to retell an event for the purpose of entertaining
b. to amuse the readers and deal with actual or vicarious experience indifferent ways
c. to present different point of views
d. to share with other unusual incidents
e. to describe the particular thing

06. The following include complication.
a. One day seven worms were walking happily
b. The child was not the same as the other so, mama asked him to go way
c. There was beautiful big caterpillar and her children
d. When he was near a lake, he talked into the lake
e. They may call you ugly, but you are the most beautiful child in the world

07. The little brown warm walked away. (par.3), the underlined word is similar to.....
a. evacuated
b. emaciated
c. exiled
d. escaped
e. get way

08. The story of the lost caterpillar leads to ..... ending
a. tragedy
b. happy
c. sad
d. funny
e. unknown

09. One of the language features used on the text above is using material process. Below are the examples of material process, except.......
a. go away
b. walked
c. turn into
d. said
e. lead

Text 2
Forest plays a vital role in maintaining the continuity of the earth’s natural resources and supporting life on earth. This is so for a number of reasons.

First, forests are supplier of valuable products. Forests contain resources that are useful for food, medicine, fibres, fuels, industrial materials and others.

Second, in forest, we still may find the basic life balance of animal life and food growth. The knowledge of such ‘system’ is used to improve crops and livestock, and to stimulate industrial research and natural drug development.

Third, forests also have ecological functions. Forest prevents waste shed, erosion, and flooding. They also regulate local and regional climate condition.

For the reasons listed above, we must take part in the forest preservation. We have to save our forests.

10. The genre of the text above is......
a. narrative
b. descriptive
c. anecdote
d. procedure
e. analytical exposition

11. The purpose of the text above is.......
a. to tell an event
b. to describe the way things are
c. to give information to the readers
d. to explain to the readers about the forest
e. to persuade the reader that forest is the case

12. The last paragraph shows us a/an........
a. resolution
b. reiteration
c. complication
d. argument
e. description

13. The word ‘livestock’ in the text above means.......
a. cattle, sheep, etc
b. supply for life
c. farming
d. poultry
e. bird

14.What is the best title for the text above?
a. Our Forest
b. Forest Product
c. Forest Preservation
d. The Advantages of Forests
e. Forests Towards Our Life

Text 3
The Pacific Ocean is a body of water of immense size and power. Its name, however, does not reflect the incredible size and force of this body of water. In size, the Pacific Ocean is unequalled. The ocean covers an area of 64 million square miles and is by far the largest of the world’s oceans. It covers a third of the surface of the Earth, it is double the size of the Atlantic, and it contains more water than al the world’s other oceans combined. As a force of nature, the Pacific Ocean can be very powerful indeed. The westerly winds produce areas of stormy precipitation in some parts of the ocean Tropical cyclones, with winds that can be as high as 200 miles per hour, produce much of the rainfall in the Pacific in view of extreme size and power of the Pacific, the name that is carries in unexpected The Pacific Ocean was given its name by a Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed around the world in the early sixteen century. The word ‘Pacific actually means ‘peaceful’. Magellan named this giant of an ocean the Pacific because he found its water to be so much more powerful than the rough and stormy water of the Atlantic that he had crossed earlier in his voyages.

15. The social function of the text above is..........
a. to discuss something
b. to report a phenomena
c. to describe Pacific Ocean
d. to explain about the Pacific Ocean waves
e. to persuade the readers to know the Pacific Ocean

16. The text above is mostly written in the form of.......
a. simple past tense
b. simple present tense
c. present future tense
d. passive voice
e. present perfect
17. Based of the text, which of the following statement is wrong?
a. Magellan had ever sailed across the Atlantic
b. The water of Pacific Ocean is rougher than that of the Atlantic Ocean
c. The Atlantic Ocean is half of the Pacific Ocean in size
d. The Pacific Ocean is not the same size as the Atlantic Ocean
e. It was Magellan who gave the name of Pacific

18. From which direction do the powerful winds mentioned in the text come from?
a. The East
b. The West
c. The South
d. The North
e. The North-East
19. From the text above, we may conclude that.........
a. the Pacific is quite a peaceful Ocean
b. the Pacific and the Atlantic are comparable oceans
c. there is a contrast between the name and the reality of the Pacific
d. Magellan overestimated the size and strength of the Pacific
e. Although it is the largest ocean, the Pacific does not produce storms

20. The Pacific Ocean is a body of water of immense size.
The underlined word has the same meaning with........
a. very smooth
b. very trifling
c. very large
d. very dangerous
e. very tiny

Text 4
An English teacher was explaining about colours to his students.
After he had been explaining, he asked his students, “Who can make a sentence using the words green, pink and yellow?”
James, the smartest student in the class, quickly raised his hand and answered, “When the yellow morning sun comes, I see a beautiful girl wearing a pink dress walking through the green grass”.
“Me, me, sir” Johny, one of the student in the class, said while raising his hand. And then he said, “I heard the telephone ring,, then I picked up the receiver and I said, ”Yellow, who’s speaking there?”

21. What is the genre of the text above?
a. Recount
b. Narrative
c. Spoof
d. Anecdote
e. Explanation

22. What is the purpose of the text above?
a. To retell events to the students
b. To deal with the vicarious experience
c. To educate the students
d. To entertain the readers
e. To explain the process

23. What is the schematic structure of the text ?
a. Orientation-events-reorientation
b. Orientation-evaluation-complication-resolution
c. Abstract-orientation-crisis-reaction-coda
d. General statement-explanation
e. Orientation-events-twist

24. What tense is mostly used in the story?
a. Present simple tense
b. Past simple tense
c. Present future tense
d. Present perfect tense
e. Past future tense

25.The last of the story reflects.......
a. orientation
b. un expected result
c. coda
d. twist
e. B and D are correct

Text 5
Working in the hospital isn’t always enjoyable. Some days nothing goes right and then it’s very frustrating.

Working with older people is much more difficult. They take much longer to get better. A lot of the older patients don’t want to leave hospital at all. They fell safe there and they have lots of friends. When they go home, they fell very lonely. They miss their friends. Sometimes nurses go and visit them at home when they can. But it’s hard to get the time. It causes that some of them will never really get well again. Every nurse fells sorry for them but they can’t show them how they feel. They have to be cheerful and do what they can. Nurses always try to do their best for all patients.

Thus nurses should be creative to develop amusing and enjoyable environment in order to help patients recover from the illness

26. What is the purpose of the text above?
a. To describe a nurse’s job
b. To share a problem with others
c. To inform readers how to be a nurse
d. To persuade the readers how to be a good nurse
e. To advice readers to be careful with their illness

27. What the problem faced by nurses?
a. These older patients have lots of friends
b. Older patients feel happy in the hospital
c. A lot of older patients feel safe in the hospital
d. Some older patients get worse when they are home
e. Nurses are asked to go and visit the patients at home

28. When nurses are on duty, they sometimes feel frustrated because............
a. they have to visit their patients
b. they feel very lonely all the time
c. they always work with older people
d. they should do their best at all times
e. their jobs do not always run smoothly

29. ‘.....they have to be cheerful and do what they....’
The word ‘they’ refers to......
a. patients
b. nurses
c. friends
d. illnesses
e. environment

30. The writer suggests that nurses should......
a. be creative to develop enjoyable environment when they are on duty
b. send the patients home as soon as they are recovered
c. let the patients be with their family
d. know the patients’ wealth
e. make a lot of friends

Text 6
Leo and Beni decided to go to a movie to relax. They were very tired after finishing the exams. They chose to see an adventure film. They didn’t want to see drama, love story, thriller or horror film. They wanted to forget studying for one night and fantasize a little.
So they bought two tickets for a film called Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring. They got in the movie just on time before the movie started.
Inside the movie, a tall man sat on a seat in front of them. He put on a tall hat. Leo and’ Beni could not see the screen. Leo tapped the man on the shoulder and asked him to remove his hat, When the man turned around to say sorry, they recognized him. He was Mr Ali, Leo’s father.

31. The purpose of the text above is...
a.  to tell past events
b.  to entertain the readers about the
c.  to describe how to get to the
d.  to explain the readers how Leo
     met his father in the movie
e.  to inform the readers about
     Leo’s activity after the exams

32. Leo and Beni went to the movie and saw a/an ... film
a.  drama
b.  thriller
c.  horror
d.  adventure
e.  love story
33. The main idea of the last paragraph is...
a.  they enjoyed the film
b.  they bought two tickets for the
c.  they were late to get to the movie
d.  they wore tall hats while they
     were watching the film
e.  they unpurposely met Leo’s father in the movie

34. Why couldn’t Leo and Beni see the screen?
a.  The screen wasn’t so clear
b.  They sat on seats at the back row
c.  A man wearing a tall hat sitting in front of them
d.  The man sitting behind them wore a tall hat
e.  They were too short to see the screen clearly

35. ‘They didn’t want to see a drama, love story, thriller (P.1).
The underlined word means a film that tells a story about. …,
a. scary
b. funny
c. amused
d. romantic
e. excellent

Text 7
There are several things that I do not like about registration. First, it takes too long. There entire process takes the average students three hours. Second, it is too impersonal. No one knows your name, not even the counsellors who stamp their names on your registration card. Next I do not like the atmosphere where registration is held. The constant sound of voice is irritating and so are the fluorescent lights, which make everyone look a little sick. Finally, I do not like the way it is organized. Freshmen always get in last. Consequently they end up in classes at inconvenient times.

36. What type of text is used by the writer
a. Narrative
b. Analytical Exposition
c. Descriptive
d. Report
e. Anecdote

37. The communicative purpose of the text is.....
a. to persuade the reader about the certain case
b. to explain the process of something
c. to inform readers about events
d. to amuse, entertain and to deal with experience
e. to describe the particular thing

38. What kind of atmosphere of registration that makes the writer frustrated?
a. it takes too long
b. it is too impersonal
c. the constant sound of voice
d. no one knows our name
e. the way it is organized

39. The text above mainly discusses about......
a. the writer feeling of atmosphere
b. the way of registration
c. the writer’s problems about registration
d. the registration card
e. the entire process that takes three ours

Text 8
Pat Hogan was traveling around the country in his car. One evening, he was driving along the road and looking for a small hotel when he saw an old man at the side of the road. He stopped his car and said to the old man, "I want to go to Sun Hotel. Do you know it?"
‘Yes,” the old man answered. "I'll show you the way."
He got into Pat's car, and they drove for about twelve miles. When they came to a small house, the old man said, "Stop here”.
Pat stopped his car and looked at the house. "But this is not the hotel,” he said to the old man.
"No. the old man answered, "this is my house. And now I'll show you the way to the Sun Hotel. Turn around and go back nine miles. 'Then you'll see the Sun Hotel on the left."

40.   Fizzin : What kind of text is it?
Pistra  : it is a/an……text.
a. spoof
b. recount
c. narrative
d. expository
e. discussion

41. What is the purpose of the text?
a. explain the audience how something occur
b. tell about unforgettable experience
c. retell an event with a humorous twist
d. amuse or entertain the audience
e. tell about natural phenomena

42.  Shanti :   could you tell me the generic structure of the text above. I really forget!
Dimas :  of course, they are...
a.      orientation-complication-resolution
b. abstract-orientation-crisis-reaction-coda
c. orientation-events-reorientation
d. thesis-arguments-recommendation
e. orientation-events-twist

43.   Magda : What kind of tense is mostly used in the text?
 Su'ef      : It uses..…..
a. simple present
b. passive voice
c. past tense
d. direct speech
e. indirect speech

44. Pat Hogan should only drive….miles to reach the Sun   Hotel, but he drive twelve miles.
a.     nine
b. eight
c. five
d. three
e. two

Text 9

Al Brown was very good at fixing things around the house when they broke. One day he went to another city to do some work there, and his wife was alone in the house. While Mr. Brown was away, one of the faucets on the bathtub broke. Mrs. Brown didn’t now much about fixing broken faucets, so she telephoned a plumber.

The plumber came to the house that afternoon and fixed the faucet in a few minutes. When he finished, he gave Mrs.Brown his bill for the work.

She looked at it for several seconds and then said :”Your prices are very high, aren’t they ? Do you know, the doctor costs less than this when he comes to the house ?”

“Yes, I know”, answered the plumber. ”I know that very well, because I was a doctor until I was lucky enough to find this job a few months ago.”

45. This text mainly tells us about ……
a.    Al Brown visit to another city
b. Te payment of the doctor’s visit
c. The broken faucet of Mrs.Brown’s bathtub
d. The disappointment of Mrs.Brown about the bill given
e. The unexpected incidents experienced by Mrs.Brown

46. Which of the following sentences is TRUE according to the text ?
a. The plumber was smart
b. All Brown went to the village to work
c. The plumber charged Mrs.Brown cheaply
d. Mrs.Brown was skilful in fixing broken faucets
e. Mrs.Brown called Mr.Brown to fix the broken faucet

47. “The plumber came to the house that afternoon,” (paragraph 2)
The word “plumber” means someone who is skilful in …..
a. making handicraft
b.  repairing vehicles
c.  operating computers
d.  fixing washing machines
e.  fitting pipes into building

48. The type of the text above is a/an ……
a.    report
b.    recount
c.    anecdote
d.    narrative
e.    descriptive

49. What is the communicative purpose of the text ?
a. To share an amusing story with others
b. To inform readers about Mrs Brown’s problem
c.  To present two points of view about the plumber’s issue
d. To describe the plumber’s experience in fixing broken faucets
e.    To persuade readers to be concerned with Mrs. Brown’s case


1. Simple Present Tense
Simple present tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan fakta (facts), kebenaran umum (general truth) dan kebiasaan (habitual actions)

Kalimat nominal (kalimat yang tidak terdapat kata kerja)
(+) S +  to be (am/is/are) + N/ Adj/ Adv
(-)  S + to be NOT + N / Adj / Adv
(?)  to be + S + N/ Adj / Adv

1. The weather is bright
2. these building are not across my house
3. Is fire hot?
4. Blood is red

Kalimat verbal (kalimat yang  terdapat kata kerja)
(+) S + V1 s/es + ….
(-)  S + do/does + NOT + V1 + ….
(?)  Do/Does + S + V1 + ……

1. Fatimah likes roses very much.
2. The children don’t go to school everyday.
3. Water boils at 100o
4. Why does iron rust?

· Simple present tense tidak benar-benar menggambarkan present actions, melakukan sesuatu yang permanen atau habitual.
· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya dengan menggunakan WH Question (what, why, what, when, where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum auxiliaries to be/ do/does.
· Adverb of frequency seperti: usually, seldom, dsb., umumnya muncul sesudah auxiliaries   namun sebelum  V1 s/es.
· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: seldom, usually, always, never, often, sometimes, rarely, every ,…., once/twice/ … a day/ in a week/ a month/ a year…., etc.

2. Present Continuous Tense
Present Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung sekarang (at the time around of speaking)
(+) S +  to be (am/is/are) + V1 + ing + ….
(-)  S + to be NOT + V1 + ing + ….
(?)  To be + S +V1 + ing + …..

1. My father is sleeping now.
2. You are not studying English, you are studying math.
3. What are you doing? Are you writing a letter?

· Present Continuous Tense benar-benar menggambarkan present actions, walaupun terkadang bisa juga untuk future meaning.
· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, apabila kita ingin membuat kalimat tanya dengan menggunakan Wh Qustion (what, why, what, When, Where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum Auxiliaries “to be”
· Beberapa kata kerja tertentu tidak bisa menggunakan bentuk continuous, biasanya kata kerja yang bersifat tetap (stative verbs) dan kata kerja mental (mental verbs), misalnya: see, hear, like, hate, love, dislike, believe, own, have(mempunyai) think, know smell, consider, understand, appear, seem, look, want, remember, forget, belong, prefer, etc.
· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: now, right now, today, at the moment, at the present, etc.
· Kalimat imperative (Be Quiet!, don’t make so much noise! Look! Etc.) biasanya diikuti dengan Present Continuous Tense.

3. Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Tense digunakan untuk mengngkapkan kejadian yang baru saja selesai namun masih ada akibat atau hubungan dengan masa sekarang. Yang dipentingkan adalah action bukan waktu dimulainya.

(+) S + have/has + V3/been + ….
(-)  S + have/has + NOT + V3/been + ….   FOR/SINCE  . . . .
(?)  Have/has + S +V3/been + …..

1. Mr. Is9ni  has just already eaten
2. My father and my mother have gone to Mecca since to days ago
3. Why has Aminah decided to study at Unila? Has she consulted with her parents?

FOR (selama) + duration time in the past
For two days, for two weeks, for a week, for three months, etc.

SINCE (sejak) + particular time in the past
Since yesterday, since two days ago, since last year, etc.

· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, apabila kita ingin membuat kalimat tanya dengan menggunakan Wh. Questin (what, why, what, when, where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum Auxiliaries “ have/has”.
· Time Marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: for …., since….., just, already, yet, recently, lately, so far, up to now, up to present, etc.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sudah dimulai pada masa lampau, namun masih berlasung sampai dengan sekarang. Dalam beberapa hal antara present Perfect Tense dan Present Perfect Continuous sama/tidak berbeda artinya (biasanya pada kata kerja: work, live, study (sekolah). Sebaiknya kita menggunakan Present Perfect Continuous kalau yang kita inginkan adalah menekankan pada berlangsungnya/durasi peristiwa.

(+) S + have/has + been + Ving
(-)  S + have/has + NOT + been + Ving . . . . FOR/SINCE  . . . .
(?)  Have/has + S + been + Ving …..
1. Mr. Is9ni  has been working in this company for three years = Mr. Is9ni has worked ….
2. We have been living in Pringsewu since 1999 = We have lived . . . .

· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, apabila kita ingin membuat kalimat tanya dengan menggunakan Wh Question (what, why, what, when, where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum Auxiliaries “ have/has”.
· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: for …., since….., just, already, yet, recently, lately, so far, up to now, up to present, etc.


1. Simple Past Tense

Simple Past Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang terjadi pada waktu lampau (past)

Kalimat nominal (kalimat yang tidak terdapat kata kerja)

(+) S +  to be (was/were) + N/adj/adv
(-)  S + to be (was/were)  + NOT + N/adj/adv
(?)  To be (was/were)  + S +  N/adj/adv

1. He was teacher. He is not a teacher any more.
2. They weren’t in the same class
3. Was you father at home yesterday?

Kalimat verbal (kalimat yang terdapat kata kerja)

1. Mr. Nur taught me English last week.
2. The children didn’t go to school yesterday.
3. What did you do? Did you enjoy your dinner last night?

· Untuk menunjukan habit pada masa lampau kita juga bisa menggunakan: when I was …. I usually/ I often V2 ….=/ used to V1 …
· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, apabila kita ingin membuat kalimat tanya dengan menggunakan Wh Question (what, why, what, When, Where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum Auxiliaries to be (was/were)/ did
· Perbedaan antara present perfect dengan past simple adalah penekanannya. Simple past menekankan waktu terjadinya (dimulai dan selesai pada waktu lampau) sedangkan prsent perfect tense lebih menekankan pada action.
· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: yesterday, last …., … ago, once upon time, etc.
2. Past Continuous Tense
Past Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan:
A. Kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di masa lampau (spesific past time)

(+) S +  to be (was/were) + V1 + ing + …
(-)  S + to be (was/were)  + NOT + V1 + ing + …
(?)  To be (was/were)  + S + V1 + ing …

1. My father was sleeping at 8.15 p.m. last night.
2. You were not studying English at 7.00 yesterday, but you were studying English then.
3. What were you doing? Were you writing a letter?

B. Dua buah kejadian yang terjadi bersamaan pada masa lampau (untuk menghubungkan dua buah kejadian tersebut kita menggunakan penghubung “when/while”)
Past Continuous + When + Simple past
Simple past + while + past continuous
Simple past + when + past continuous

1. I was studying English when you came to my house.
2. My father came while Rina was eating.
3. I fell down when I was walking.

· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, apabila kita inginkan membuat kalimat tanya dengan menggunakan Wh Question (what, why, what, when, where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum Auxiliaries “to be” was/were
· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: yeseterday at 10.00, at that time last night, then (past)

3. Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sudah selesai sebelum kejadian di masa lampau terjadi. (kejadian yang sudah selesai duluan berbentuk past perfect tense, dan yang selanjutnya berbentuk simple past)
(+) S + had + V3/ been + …
(-)  S + had + NOT + V3/been + ….  FOR/SINCE …
(?)  Had  + S + V3/been + …

1. Mr. Is9ni had just already eaten before you came.
2. My father and my mother went to hometown  after they had been called by my grandma.

Simple past + after + past perfect
Past perfect + before/when + simple past


4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sudah dimulai pada masa lampau namun masih berlangsung sampai dengan kejadian di masa lampau. Sebaiknya kita menggunakan past perfect continuous–bukan past perfect –kalau yang kita inginkan adalah menekankan pada berlangsungnya/durasi peristiwa.

(+) S +  had + been + Ving …
(-)  S + had + NOT + been + Ving ….  FOR ….
(?)  had  + S + been + Ving …

An example:
Mr. Is9ni had been working in this company for three years when Andi joined in this company.

1. Present Future Tense
Present Future Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang akan berlangsung di masa yang akan datang.

(+) S +  Will/shall V1/be + ….
(-)  S + will/shall + NOT + be + V1 + ing + ….
(?)  Will/shall + S + V1 / be + ….

1. I will go to school tomorrow morning.
2. Roni will not go to Bali next month.
3. Why won’t you go to school tomorrow?

· Sebaiknya kita menggunakan TO be going to V1 (Present Continuous Tense) untuk sebuah kejadian kita rencanakan sejak awal
· Dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, apabila kita ingin membuat kalimat tamya dengan menggunakan WH Question (what, why, what, when, where, how), letakan Wh Question paling awal sebelum auxiliaries ”will/shall”
· Will umum untuk semua subjek “ I and we”
· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: tomorrow, next …, soon, later, tonight, the day after tomorrow

2. Present Future Continuous Tense
Present Future Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di masa yang akan datang
(+) S +  will/shall + be + V1 + ing  + ….
(-)  S + will/shall + NOT + be + V1 + ing  + ….
(?)  will/shall + S + be + V1 + ing + ….

1. My father will not be teaching English tomorrow.
2. You will be studying English at the next week.

· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: tomorrow at 10.00, this time next week, then (future)

3. Present Future Perfect Tense
Resent Future Perfect Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sudah dimulai pada masa lampau, sekarang masih berlangsung dan belum selesai dan akan selesai di waktu yang akan datang (unfinished actions).

(+) S +  will/have + V3/been + ….
(-)  S + will/have + NOT + V3/been + ….  By the time …..
(?)  Will + S + have + V3/been  + …..

1. Mr. Dhany will have gone by the time tomorrow.
2. My Father will have studied before Rina comes to my house.

· Time marker  yang biasa digunakan ialah: when, by the time, by the end, by, as soon as, until ….+ future time (present simple)

4. Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sudah mulai berlangsung sebelum waktu tertentu atau kejadian lain di waktu yang akan datang dam akan masih berlangsung pada saat tersebut.

(+) S +  will/have +been + Ving ….
(-)  S + will/have + NOT + been + Ving ….  FOR …..
(?)  Will + S + have + been  + Ving …..

Mr. IS9ni will have been working in this company for three years by the time you join in this company

· Time marker yang biasa digunakan ialah: when, by the time, by the end, by, as soon as, until …. + Future time (present simple)

01. By the end of this week I…from Malaysia.
A. Am back
B. Have been back
C. Would be back
D. May be back
E. Will have been back

02. I know that one of my students…in your company since he graduated.
A. work
B. working
C. to work
D. has been working
E. have worked

03. Hadi looks very tired; he…for hours now.
A. drove
B. had driven            
C. was driving
D. had been driving
E. has been driving

04. I hope that by the time my father retires, I …a job.
A. get
B. am getting
C. have got
D. got
E. will have got

04.  I have written three letters. It means…
 A.  I am still writing now
B. I am not writing anymore
C. I haven’t finished writing yet
D. I hope to finish this morning
E. I have to write now

05. Iwan, the national tennis champion, ….tennis since he was nine.
A. played
B. has been playing
C. plays
D. is playing
E. had played

06. Heru had a lot of work to do. He finished his work five minutes ago. He cried: "I am free now, because I ... all my work."
A. finished
B. have finished
C. will finish    
D. will have finished
E. am finishing

07. Tara ... a letter in his room when his mother came in.
A. wrote
B. has written
C. writes                    
D. was writing
E. is writing

08. Arina ...... to Yogya last year. It was her first visit there.
A. has gone
B. has been gone
C. went
D. was going
E. had gone

09. “Have the boys had their breakfast?”
 “Not yet, they…
A. have taken a bath
B. are still taking a bath
C. will take a bath
D. were taking a bath
E. would still take a bath

10. They  ...  the matter by twelve o'clock  tomorrow.
A. discuss
B. will discuss
C. will have discussed
D. have discussed
E. will be discussing

11. Every night the watchman turns on all the lights and …around the building every half an hour.
A. walks
B. is walking
C. to be walking
D. walking
E. to walk

12. “How long has been the principle of our school?”
 “Since I …this school”
A. was entering
B. have entered
C. would enter
D. entered
E. had been entering

13. Raihan ...... the nasyid very well in his friend’s wedding party last week.
a. was singing
b. is singing
c. has sung
d. had sung
e. sang

14. The students ..... the topic in the big hall for one hour when the teacher came.
a. were discussing
b. discussed
c. have discussed
d. had been discussing
e. discuss

15. By nine o'clock tonight I… ready to go to  Jakarta.
A. have been
B. will have been-.
C. will be
D. am
E. was

16. At this moment she ... her dress.
A. will sew
B. sew
C. is sewing            
D. sewed
E. sews

17. Good students always ...... rules.
a. will obey
b. have obeyed
c. obeys
d. obey
e. are obeying

18. She ... in Jakarta this time tomorrow.
A. will be arriving
B. will have arrive
C. will have been arriving
D. will arrive
E. have been arriving    

19. The bus came after I …for about twenty minutes.
A. have been waiting
B. have waited
C. am waiting
D. had been waiting
E. was waiting

20. When I came in, the dog… under the table.
A. was sleeping  
B. have been sleeping
C. is sleeping
D. sleeping
E. will be sleeping

21. Every year She….my holiday in Bali
A. is spending
B. spend
C. spends
D. will spend
E. spent

22. Keep quiet, we…to music.
A. listen
B. am listening
C. listened
D. will listen
E. have listened

23. I….outside the restaurant this time next  Wednesday.
A. am waiting
B. will wait
C. will be waiting
D. will been waited
E. wait

24. A guest wants to see you. He ...... for more than two hours
a. waited
b. has been waiting
c. waiting
d. wait
e. have to wait

25. “oh dear. I forget to bring my dictionary.”
 “That’s all right. I …you mine.
A. am lending
B. am going to lend
C. will lend
D. lend
E. will be lending

1. CAN and COULD
Can and Could digunakan untuk menyatakan :
1. Kemampuan dan ketidakmampuan (ability and disability)
contoh :
- He can sing melodiously
- She can’t come to night
2. Persetujuan dan kemungkinan (permission and possibility)
contoh :
- Can you help me with this homework ?
- He walks slowly, he can be late
Catatan :
1. ‘Can’ digunakan untuk present dan future actions, sedangkan ‘could’ digunakan untuk past actions.
2. ‘Can dan Could’ memiliki sinonim :
· be able to + V1
· be capable of + gerund/ present participle

2.   MAY and MIGHT
May and Might digunakan untuk menyatakan :
1. Perizinan/ persetujuan (permission)
contoh :
- You may choose whatever you want
- She may go home if she is sick
2. Kemungkinan (possibility)
contoh :
- I don’t see her, she may be late
- It may rain. I won’t come.

Catatan :
1. ‘May’ digunakan untuk present dan future actions, sedangkan ‘Might’ untuk past actions.
2. May and Might memiliki sinonim : be allowed to + V1

3.   MUST and HAVE TO
1. ‘Must’ digunakan untuk menyatakan ‘perintah’ (command) atau ‘kewajiban (obligation) yang biasanya diberikan oleh pembicara.
contoh :
- You must work hard in order to pass the test
- You must not smoke here
2. ‘Have to’ juga digunakan untuk menyatakan ‘perintah’ (command), tetapi kurang kuat ( less direct and forceful), biasanya dilakukan oleh pihak luar.
 contoh :
- You have to follow this rules, when you are in this college
- He has to send the letter as soon as possible
3. ‘Have to’ digunakan untuk menggantikan ‘must’, khususnya untuk past, future, and conditional tenses.
contoh :
- He must be told the truth, menjadi :
                He will have to be told the truth

Should / ought to / had better + V1 digunakan untuk menyatakan :
1. Kejadian yang akan terjadi di masa depan (expect something to happen)
contoh :
- We should be there by dinner time
- It ought to get better as it goes along
2. Sesuatu yang secara moral benar (something is morally right)
contoh :
- Crimes should be punished
-  I had better study tonight. I will have a test tomorrow.
3. Memberi Nasehat (giving advice)
contoh :
- You ought to obey the law
- I think you should get in touch with your mother

Should, ought to, had better dapat digunakan untuk present, past, and future tense

5. USED TO + V1
Used to + V1 digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan di waktu lampau (past habitual action) yang tidak lagi dilakukan sekarang (to express something that existed or was done in the past, but no longer exists or is done now)
Contoh :
-  He used to come here very often. (but now he seldom comes here)
-  The boy used to smoke last year. (now he doesn’t smoke anymore)

Used to memiliki sinonim:
- Accustomed to + V1
- Was/were used to +...........present participle

6.  BE USED TO + G
Be used to + G, digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan di masa sekarang (present habit)
contoh :
-  I am used to drinking milk every morning
-  The girl gets accustomed to get up early

Be used to + G, memiliki sinonim:
- Be/get become used to + G
- Be/get become accustomed to + G

7.  WILL and SHALL
(1) Will digunakan untuk menyatakan:
(a) undangan (invitation)
contoh : Will you come for a drink with me?
(b) permintaan (request)
contoh : Will you shut the windows, please?
(c) perintah yang tegas (command that is strick and impersonal)
contoh : You will do as you are told
(d) kebiasaan (habit)
contoh : He will get up at 6 every morning
(2) “Shall” digunakan untuk menyatakan :
(a) permintaan nasehat (request for advice)
contoh : Where shall I put this book?
(b) pembicara meminta orang kedua melakukan sesuatu (speaker’s intention to perform an action)
contoh : You shall have dinner with us before you go
(c) perintah, terutama berhubungan dengan peraturan (command, chiefly concerning rules and regulation)
contoh : Each contestant shall wear a number.

“would” digunakan untuk menyatakan:
(a) permintaan yang sopan (polite request)
contoh : Would you show me your picture, please?
(b) kebiasaan di waktu lampau (past habitual action)
contoh : He would take a walk every evening after dinner
(c) keinginan yang tidak terpenuhi (unfulfilled wish = subjunctive)
contoh : If only I would come on time (I don’t come on time)
PROBLEM SET01. Amir will have a test next week, so he …. study hard
a. must
b. should
c. may
d. must to
e. can

02. My father ….. go to his office, because he was sick.
a. wasn’t
b. might not
c. didn’t
d. couldn’t
e. shouldn’t

03. Many of the students ….. all those words correctly.
a. can’t to be spell
b. can’t spell
c. can’t to spell
d. can’t spelling
e. can’t spelled

04. You don’t feel well. You ….. go and see the doctor.
a. could
b. would
c. had better
d. will
e. unable

05. I ….. ask Mr. Umar for his advice about that tomorrow night.
a. Would to
b. might
c. could to
d. should
e. has to

06. No one …….explain the exact meaning of the word to me.
a. can to
b. could to
c. be able to
d. can have to
e. can

07. It is raining hard. I …. an umbrella.
a. should bring
b. would bring
c. could bring
d. must bring
e. must bringing

08. Sena ….. to answer all the questions on this paper correctly.
a. must
b. is able
c. can
d. having
e. will

09. ‘ ……… you help me lift this furniture?’
a. don’t
b. must
c. would
d. should
e. may

10. Amar …. run faster than Mahfud and me yesterday.
a. must
b. have to
c. ought to
d. has to
e. could

11. She is very tired. She …. take a rest.
a. has to
b. may
c. have
d. must
e. should

12. X : ‘Have you seen the doctor?’
Y : ‘I ….. him this afternoon.’
a. am seeing
b. may see
c. will see
d. will be seeing
e. can see

13. X : ‘Excuse me, ….. to the post  office?’
Y : ‘Just walk straight about one kilometre. It’s at your left’
a. tell me the way
b. could you tell me the way
c. will accompany me
d. let’s go
e. may I go

14. When I grow up, I ….. be a pilot.
a. am going to
b. am going
c. would
d. was going to
e. was going

15. You …. waste your time.
a. ought not to
b. must
c. should
d. ought to
e. may

16. We….. stay at home if you come in the evening.
a. can
b. will
c. should
d. might
e. had better

17. They promise that they ….. study hard to pass the exams.
a. must
b. should
c. will
d. might
e. would
18. He …… not sleep because he was worried.
a. can
b. might
c. could
d. should
e. must

19. Father said that we …. go to Umroh in the following holiday.
a. have to
b. could
c. should
d. will
e. would

20. As there is no answer when I knock, I think he ..... out.
a.      can be
b. might be
c. must be
d. must to be
e. should be

21. To prevent accidents, parents ....... allow their children to play near the well.
a. might not
b. would not
c. do not have to
d. can not
e. should not

22. If you ask him politely, he ….. agree to your suggestion.
a. could
b.     must
c .    has to
d.     may
e.     had better

23.   I …. wash my own clothes every morning before I come to work.
a. have to
b. had to
c. could
d. might
e. should

24.  ‘Good News!’ Uncle Jacky  …… give me present for my becoming first rank in my class.
a. shall
b. can
c. would
d. will
e. must

25.  Before they shifted, we …… visit them frequently.
a. can
b. might
c. used to
d. ought to
e. will

26. ‘There …… be no further discussions on this subject again’ he said.
a. can
b. will
c. may
d. shall
e. has to

27. The dog …… wag its tail and bark joyfully whenever it saw him
a. might
b. could
c. would
d. had to
e. should

28. When he was a baby, he ….. cry a lot
a. could
b. might
c. ought to
d. used to
e. had to

29. The tutor said to Evi :“You can go now”. It means that:
a. Evi was supposed to go
b. Evi was advised to go
c. Evi was ordered to go
d. Evi was requested to go
e.      Evi was allowed to go

30. Bob is usually make a noisy in the class. And some of his friends don’t like him. The teacher ..... him some advices.
a. has to give
b. ought to have given
c. would have
d. must have been
e.      have to given


I.  ADJECTIVE (Kata Sifat)
ADJECTIVE (Kata Sifat) adalah kata yang menerangkan kata benda (noun) atau kata ganti (pronoun) dalam sebuah urutan kata. (Adjective is a word which explains noun or pronoun in a sequence of words)

      Fungsi dan posisi kata sifat (Function and position of Adjective)
a. Sebelum kata benda (before noun)
Contoh :
v She has a beautiful house
v He gave me a wonderful present last week

b. Sebagai keterangan subjek (subjective complement, yaitu sesudah to be : am, is, are, was, were, be, been, and linking verb : seem, look, smell, become, get, appear, feel, taste, sound, etc.)
Contoh :
v Ahmad is very happy
v The cake tastes delicious
v The child looks sad

c. Sebagai adjective comlement dengan formula :

 S + Verb + Object + Adjective

Verb yang serimg digunakan untuk pola ini adalah : keep, consider, make, find, like, want, etc
Contoh :
v I want my tea sweet
v Badrun always keeps his room clean
v She often make me jeleous

II. ADVERB (Kata Keterangan)

Adverb atau kata keterangan adalah kata yang menerangkan selain kata benda (noun) atau kata ganti benda (pronoun).

Macam-macam kata keterangan :
1. Adverb of Frequency
Menyatakan berapa sering suatu kejadian terjadi (to show how often the action happens).
Yang termasuk adverb of frequency adalah :
· Always
· Usually =generally = commonly
· Often = frequently
· Sometimes = occasionally
· Seldom
· Rarely
· Never
· Twice in a week, etc.

Posisi Adverb of Frequency :
Adverb of frequency bias diletakkan di depan, tengah, atau belakang kalimat.
Contoh :
Sometimes, he comes late
He sometimes comes late
He comes late sometimes

Catatan :
Ø Bila di tengah, letaknya adalah sebelum verb atau setelah auxiliary.
Contoh :
I never have any chat with him
Anya often misses the classes
They will always obey their parents.

Ø Untuk adverb of frequency yang bermakna negatif (-), seperti : rarely, never, seldom, dapat diletakkan diawal kalimat, dengan perubahan struktur kalimat, seolah-olah menjadi kalimat tanya.

Rumus :   Never, Seldom, rarely + Aux. + Subject + Verb

contoh :
Umar never comes late   = Never does Umar come late
Amir is seldom late   = seldom is Amir late
She has rarely visited me = Rarely has she visited me

2. Adverb of Place
Untuk menunjukkan tempat suatu kejadian terjadi (to show where the action happen), misalnya : here, there, at school, in the office,etc.
Contoh :
- The children are drawing outside
- We have lived in Jakarta for 5 years
Catatan :
Bila ada dua atau lebih keterangan dalam satu kalimat, maka urutannya adalah dari yang general (umum) ke yang specific (khusus).
Contoh :
- The students take English Course on Jl. Kartini at Al-Qolam
- Abdullah visited his friend in South Jakarta on Jl. Sudirman No.45

3. Adverb of Manner
Menerangkan bagaimana subjek melakukan tindakan (to show how the subject does the action)
Adverb of manner umumnya dibentuk dari :  adjective + ly
Contoh :
He speaks English fluently
The little boy screamed loudly
Note :  Ada beberapa kata keterangan yang tidak dibentuk dari adjective + ly, seperti

Hard – hard
Good – well
Fast – fast
High – high
Late – late
Early – early
Low –low
contoh : I did my homework well

4. Adverb of Time
Menunjukkan kapan suatu peristiwa terjadi, biasanya tergantung pada tenses yang digunakan (to show when the actions happen, which usually depend on the tenses). Misalnya :
· Present simple   : every ….. , twice ……, three times …… , etc
· Present Continuous  : now, at present, right now, at the moment, etc
· Past Simple   : yesterday, last …… , ……..ago, etc
· Future Simple   : tomorrow, next ….. ,etc

Catatan : Bila dalan satu kalimat ada 2 atau lebih keterangan waktu, maka urutannya adalah dari yang general (umum) ke yang specific (khusus).
Contoh :
- I missed the English class yesterday
- Salsabila did her homework last night at 7 o’clock

Bila dalam satu kalimat terdapat beberapa keterangan, maka urutannya adalah :

    Adverb of Place, Manner, Time
Contoh :
The students always come to the class on time yesterday
The secretary is writing the letter on the paper hurily right now

5. Adverb of degree
Untuk menekankan suatu adjective atau adverb lainnya (to emphasize adjective or adverb), misalnya : so, very, too, enough, absolutely, extremely, completely, really, pretty, nearly, entirely, wholly, rather, quite, etc.
Contoh :
- Mr. Karun is very rich
- I am pretty sure about it
- Carl Lewis runs so quickly

6.   Adverb of Purpose
In order to / to + V1
For + noun phrase
contoh : He went to the store to buy some books
  He went to the store for some books


A. A. Complete these sentences using the adverbs given
1. The washing powder is …… finished. (near – nearly)
We live ……. Al-Qolam English Course
2. I’ve worked ……. all my life to save money. (hard – hardly)
I’ve done any work today.
3. Umar’s house is …… (pretty – prettily)
He smiled …… as he accepted the present
4. She solved the crossword …….. (easy – easily).
You should take it …….. for a while
5. Mr. Goodman was introduced …… (last – lastly).
…….. , I’d like to thank

B. Place the adverb correctly
1. She went ………(to school, at 7 o’clock)
2. He eats Sandwich …… (at home, every morning)
3. Our boss spoke to us …….. (in the room, very loudly, this morning)
4. He sleeps …….. (in a sleeping bag, usually, every night)
5. They stayed ………. (all days, quietly, there)
6. We are going ……… (for a month, to Bandung, next Sunday)
7. My father was working …….. (at his office, very hard, all day yesterday)
8. I meet her …….. (in the festival, rarely)
9. He played …….. (at the hall, last season, beautifully)
10. We have lunch …….. (at 1 p.m., usually, in Garuda Restaurant)

01. 01. They …… give all applications with …… consideration.
a. generally; carefully
b. general ; carefully
c. general ; careful
d. generally ; careful
e. generally ; care

02. His appearance is very ....... that’s why many girls admire him
a. elegant
b. elegance
c. elegantly
d. eleganced
e. eleganted

03. The boy got ….. from working so …… and ……
a. tiredly ; fast ; hard
b. tired ; hard; fast
c. tired ; fastly ; hard
d. tiredly ; fastly ; hardly
e. tired ; hardly ; fast

04. Umar came …….
a. yesterday to my house, at seven
b. to my house, at seven, yesterday
c. at seven, to my house, yesterday
d. to my house, yesterday, at seven
e. yesterday, at seven to my house

05. Badrun closed the front door ….. and …..
a. quiet ; cautious
b. quietly ; cautious
c. quietly ; cautiously
d. quiet ; cautiously
e. quiet ; cautious

06. It is difficult ...... English correctly if you don’t practice
a. spell
b. to spell
c. spells
d. spelled
e. spelling

07. The servant cleaned the room …… and made it …… for us.
a. regularly ; neat
b. regular ; neat
c. regular ; neatly
d. regularity ; neatness
e. regularly ; neatly
08. …….. dishwashers are …… and….
a. Automatic ; convenient ; safe
b. Automatically ; conveniently ; safely
c. Automatic ; conveniently ; safe
d. Automatic ; conveniently ; safely
e. Automatic ; convenient ; safely

09. The sprinter moved …… with the …… wind behind him.
a. strong ; fast
b. fastly ; strongly
c. fastly ; strong
d. fast ; strongly
e. fast ; strong
10. The director of our office is a …… man.
a. good – educatedly
b. good – educated
c. goodly – educated
d. well – educatedly
e. well – educated

11. The doctor always examines his patients …..
a. very careful
b. verily carefully
c. very carefully
d. very care
e. verily careful

12. All of the students were …… that they passed the national exam.
a. enough happily
b. enough happy
c. happy enough
d. enoughly happy
e. happily enough

13.  ….. That he is the victim of a black mail.
a. Little does he suspects
b. Little do he suspect
c. Little does he suspect
d. Little he suspects
e. Little he does suspect

14. Nurul looked at the long dress ……. It was …… sewn.
a. neatly ; careful
b. careful ; neat
c. careful ; neatly
d. carefully ; neatly
e. care ; neatness
15. They are …… that they are going to pass the test.
a. surely pretty
b. prettily sure
c. pretty surely
d. prettily surely
e. pretty sure

16.  ……. students usually try to do anything …..
a. Good ; carefully
b. Good ; careful
c. Well ; carefully
d. Well ; careful
e. Well ; carefulness

17. Mr. Abdul …… speaks English ……
a. usually ; very good
b. usually ; very well
c. usual ; very good
d. usual ; very well
e. usually ; very goodly

18. Ayu learned English ……
a. considerable good
b. considerable well
c. considerably good
d. considerably well
e. consideration good

19. People ….. feel ….. during ….. weather  in the afternoon.
a. usually ; lazy ; hot
b. usually ; lazily ; hot
c. usually ; lazily ; hotly
d. usual ; laziness ; heat
e. usual ; lazy ; heat

20. The popularity of their football team makes them ....
a. be proud
b. to be proud
c. proud
d. proudly
e. that he is proud


1. Definite Pronoun

First Person Singular I Me My....... Mine Myself 
 Plural We Us Our..... Ours Ourselves 
Second Person  You You Your.... Yours Yourselves 
 Singular You You Your.... Yours Yourself 
Third Person Singular He Him His..... His Himself 
  She Her Her..... Hers Herself 
    It It Its....  Itself 
 Plural They Them Their.... Theirs Themselves

2. Indefinite Pronoun
Yang termasuk Indefinite Pronoun adalah:
Some, any, all, each, every, both, none, someone, anyone, everyone
Something, anything, everything, one, either, neither, another, other, etc
Notes :
v Some, dapat digunakan sebagai pronoun (kata ganti) ataupun adjective (kata sifat). Sebagai adjective dapat digunakan untuk countable noun, berarti beberapa, dan untuk uncountable noun berarti sedikit
Sebagai pronoun, some dapat berdiri sendiri, dan umunya digunakan untuk kalimat positif (possitive affirmative)
Contoh :
Ø Sebagai  adjective
- They are drinking some milk
- Some books are good, some others are not

Ø Sebagai pronoun
- Does he have a pen ?
Yes, he has some

v Any, adalah bentuk negative dan interogatif dari some, dengan fungsi sama
Contoh :
- They are not drinking any milk
- We didn’t have any trouble going through a storm
- Does he has a pen ?
Yes, she doesn’t have any

v All, dapat digunakan dengan variasi bentuk: all..., all the...., atau all of the....dapat diikuti countble/uncountable noun.
Contoh :
- All the students are in the classroom
- All children like chocolate

v Each dan every, bermakna setiap, dan untuk subyek tunggal (singular). Each dapat dipakai dalam bentuk each of the......, sedangkan every tidak dapat
Contoh :
- Each of the boys goes on food, but every girl goes by bus
- Every child deserves love and attention

v Both, bermakna ‘berdua, kedua, dua......’ hanya digunakan untuk countable noun, dan sebagai subyek jamak (plural)
Contoh :
- We both are having dinner
- Both of them know me well
v None, bermakna ‘tidak ada’, untuk countable/uncountable noun, dapat dipakai untuk subyek singular ataupun plural
Contoh :
- None of the book is cheap
- None of the films are good

v Someone/somebody, berarti ‘seseorang’, untuk bentuk positif, sedangkan anyone/anybody, adalah bentuk negative dan interogatif, sebagai subyek tunggal.
- Someone is coming here
- Somebody has his own opinion
- I didn’t see anybody here yesterday
- Did you call anyone last night ?

v Everyone/everybody, bermakna ‘setiap orang’, sebagi subyek tunggal.
- Everyone has been ready
- Everybody in the room knows me

v Something, bermakna ‘sesuatu’, untuk bentuk positif, sedangkan untuk anything adalah bentuk negatif dan interogatif, sebagai subyek tunggal
- Something is moving fast behind you
- Azizah didn’t buy anything last night

v Everything bermakna ‘segala sesuatu’, sebagai subyek tunggal
Contoh :
- Have you prepared everything for camping?
- Everything is all right now

v One/ones, menggantikan benda tunggal (one), dan jamak (ones), yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya
Contoh :
- I didn’t like red tie, I like the blue one
- She doesn’t green apples, she wants the red ones.

v Either, neither, bermakna ‘yang lain, tidak ada’, diikuti oleh countable noun plural, sebagai subyek tunggal
Contoh :
- Either of the books is Expensive
- Neither of the cars is good

v Another/ the other, bermakna’yang lainnya’ berjumlah tunggal. Bedanya another, x!x! ...satu per satu, sedangkan the other x!, satu yang terakhir.
Contoh :
- I have to talk to another man. (There are still many men to talk to)
- I have to talk to the other man. (Only he, I have to talk)

3. Relative Pronoun
Pelajari kembali Adjective Clause

4. Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns adalah kata ganti yang berarti menunjukan (this/that, these/those). Terbagi menjadi dua yaitu:

 Demonstrative adjective
Kata petunjuk yang berfungsi sebagai kata sifat, yaitu menerangkan kata benda.
Contoh :
- This book is good
- Those flowers are beautiful

4.2. Demonstrative Pronoun
Kata petunjuk yang berfungsi sebagai kata ganti yaitu menggantikan kata benda (noun) atau kata yang dibendakan (pronoun)
Contoh :
- These are my pen
- That is yours

5. Reciprocal Pronoun
Reciprocal pronoun berarti ‘saling’
Ø ‘One another’ saling untuk lebih dari 2 orang
Ø ‘Each other’ saling untuk 2 orang/lebih
Contoh :
- So many people are in the room. They are blaming one another
- There are two boys in the room. They are sharing candies each other

Fill the blanks with suitable words below
These – that- those – none – some – any – other –another –one

1. Here are two bags, do you want the small ...... or the big ....
2. ........ who like to study mathmatics can easily do the budgeting
3. Wise businessman are ...... who help the small scale industries
4. Is there any factory in your neighborhood ? No, there is not ......
5. Were any of them disappointed to see machinery in the fair ? No, ...... of them
6. A tourist bought some fruit, ....... bought some food
7. ......... shoes are better than those
8. What is ........ in your pocket
9. For many people, Bali is paradise, for ...... people it is the island of gods
10. Thirty laborer are going to work in the morning, ....... thirty are going to work at night


01. 01. Let the students solve ...... own problem
a.   their
b. theirs
c. them
d. themselves
e. theirselves

02. Both my brother and I refused to sign the petition.
Nobody could force ....... to do it
a. him
b. them
c. us
d. me
e. theirselves

03. An old man asked my friend and ..... what the time was.
a. I
b. me
c. mine
d. my
e. myself

04. Anisah told her students the books were .....
a. their
b. them
c. her
d. hers
e. themselves

05. My mother got back from Iraq and brought two pens for .....
a. I and my brother
b. My brother and I
c. Me and my brother
d. My brother and me
e. Mine and my brother

06. George gave Harry and me tickets and then we went to the movie with ..... and his friend.
a. his
b. him
c. them
d. their
e. theirs

07. There are so many young girls living  around your dormitory.
Don’t you know ......?
a. her
b. them
c. their
d. themselves
e. anything

08. Mr. Hasan has driven all of his cattle into field. He always keeps........ fat
a. it
b. them
c. his
d. its
e. their

09. You and  ....... are expected to be present at the meeting
a. I
b. My
c. Myself
d. Mine
e. Me

10. Arif said that the digital camera was not .....
a. he
b. he’s
c. his
d. him
e. he has

11. Let you and ....... try what we can do
a. I
b. Me
c. My
d. I am
e. Mine

12. It  was ...... who gave them the alarm
a.   she
b.   her
c.   hers
d.   herself
e.   she’s

13. One of the students ...... for the teacher in the class at the moment
a. wait
b. have waited
c. is waiting
d. have to wait
e. are waiting

14. None of the information ...... clear
a.  are
b.  is
c.  is being
d.  be
e.  are being

15.  Mustaqimah has two sisters, but ...... looks like her, they are very different
a. none of her children
b. neither of their sisters
c. both of her sisters
d. either of her sisters
e. all of her sisters

16.  I like physics so my father buys ……. some physics information books about the war.
a. us
b. him
c. me
d. her
e. them

17.  Some students like French and ….. like German
a. the other
b. other
c. others
d. another
e. the others

18. …… my sister and my brother didn’t go out yesterday.
a. from
b. all the
c. both
d. both of
e. each

19. She has read this novel. She wants to read ………novel
a.      other
b. others
c. another
d. the others
e. each other

20.   I forget to bring my dictionary. May I borrow …… ?
a. from you
b. your
c. yours
d. your dictionary
e. with you

Expressing Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

Here are the ways to express satisfaction and dissatisfaction :

Ø I really like it      I don’t really like it
Ø I like the way the serves customers in the shop I’m not satisfied with ....
Ø I am really satisfied with .....    I’m never satisfied with.......
Ø It satisfied me that
  She is dissatisfied with.......

(Konjungsi Setara)
Jenis konjungsi ini digunakan untuk menghubungkan NOUN (kata benda) dengan NOUN (kata benda). VERB (kata kerja) dengan VERB (kata kerja), PHRASE (kelompok kata) dengan PHRASE (kelompok kata, CLAUSE dengan CLAUSE dan sebagainya

1.  AND
Digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang berkesesuaian
Example :
Steve and His friend are coming to dinner. (noun and noun)
Susan raised her hand and snapped her fingers. (verb and verb)
2. OR
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pilihan
You can invite me or my brother to attend the meeting
Which ones do you want, the reds one or the blue one?

3. BUT
Digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua hal yang saling bertentangan
Example :
My sister likes fried chicken but my brother likes pizza
These shoes are old but comfortable

4. SO
Digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu hubungan sebab akibat
The weather is cold so we stay home tonight
Jihad didn’t study hard so he failed the test

Juga digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu hubungan sebab akibat
Because the man was very hungry, he ate greedily
 I decided not to go to the concert because I am not interested in rock music

Adalah penghubung berpasangan yang menggabungkan dua hal : Noun, Verb, Adjectives, Adverb yang berbeda namun berkesesuaian
a. BOTH....AND.....
Both my  mother and my father are in Jakarta today
The research project will take both money and time

b.  NOT ONLY....BUT ALSO....
 Example :
I am studying not only math but also chemistry this semester
The book is not only interesting but also accurate

c. EITHER ..... OR
Example :
Either Ayu or Dewi makes a brownies cake twice a month
Either the belt or the bag made from the skin is expensive
d. NEITHER ....... NOR
Example :
Neither the family nor his friends can stand the smell

Note :  *  Dua subject yang dihubungkan dengan BOTH......AND......verb/to be-nya menjadi   plural (jamak)
*  Jika dua subjek dihubungkan dengan konjungsi :
· Not Only......But Also....
· Either ..... OR ......
· Neither ..... Nor.....
maka Subjek yang paling dekat dengan Verb menentukan apakah Verb akan singular (tunggal) atau plural (jamak)
Both Andre and Santos are smart
Not only Andre but also Santos is smart


Read the two sentences in pair below. Combine them using the conjunctions in the brackets.
Wheat is grown in Kansas. Is corn grown in Kansas? (both.....and)
Both wheat and corn are grown in Kansas

1. I know you lost your key. Did you lose your wallet, too? (not only...but also)
2. The harvest wasn’t good. Was the harvest bad ? (neither....nor)
3. The city suffers from air pollution. It also suffers from noise pollution. (both.....and)
4. Sinta has my story book or Andika has my story book. Is that right? (either....or)
5. I see you are talking to Jane. Are you dating her, too? (not only......but also)


1. I was late because I caught the wrong   bus.
 It means I caught the wrong bus…I  was late.
a. And
b. But
c. Or
d. So
e. Because

2. The child hides behind his mother…he was afraid of dog.
a. because
b. and
c. or
d. but
e. so

3. I told Nurman to take the test more seriously, ….he would not be accepted.
a. but
b. and
c. so
d. or
e. because

4. We always invite him to have dinner,…he can’t come
a. and
b. but
c. or
d. so
e. for

5. The air on the beach is not only fresh but also clean.
 It means the air in the beach both  fresh…..clean.
a. because
b. or
c. and
d. so
e. but

6. My father shouted at me…he was very angry.
a. and
b. because
c. or
d. but
e. both

7. I couldn’t concentrate while examination…I failed.
a. and
b. but
c. so
d. because
e. or

8. He washed my T-shirt…it didn’t get clean
a. and
b. but
c. or
d. because
e. so

9. I turned on the light…the room was dark.
a. because
b. but also
c. and
d. not only
e. so

10.  Both Liwa …Kobum are located in Lampung.
a. and
b. but also
c. so
d. but
e. and

11. Bobby is not only diligent….
a. but also lazy
b. but also kind
c. but kind
d. but lazy
e. and kind

12. Do you like playing football…playing badminton?
a. and
b. so
c. also
d. or
e. nor

13.  There is always traffic jam in the morning….I try to leave earlier.
a. and
b. so
c. or
d. but
e. because

14. He reads newspaper everyday…he doesn’t know advance technology
a. and
b. or
c. but
d. nor
e. so

15. He got an accident…he drove over the maximum limit.
a. but also
b. not only
c. because
d. and
e. so

16. Joko not only loves pop music…rock music
a. because
b. not only
c. but also
d. and
e. so

17. Not only John but also Marry….
a. has high score
b. have high score
c. high score
d. get high score
e. having high score

18. They missed the bus…they had to walk for two miles.
a. so
b. and
c. because
d. or
e. but

19. Tukul will marry her…he loves her  much.
a. but
b. but also
c. and
d. because
e. or

20. My friend enjoys…fishing but also hunting
a. so
b. because
c. not only
d. or
e. and

21. We were planning to open a new office in Surabaya,…. the economic crisis forced us to postpone it.
a. and
b. or
c. so
d. but
e. for

22.  . Neither the bicycle nor the car....... in the garage.
a. is
b. is being
c. are
d. are being
e. be

23. Either the students or their professor ...... happy about the result of the experiment yesterday
a. is
b. are
c. was
d. were
e. have been

24.  Neither of these schools ...... for our pilot project.
a. meets the requirements
b. it meets requirement
c. they meet the requirements
d. meeting the requirements
e. meet the requirements

25. They can either give him a part time job, ....... as a trainee in their company
a. and also accept him
b. they can accept him
c. or accept him
d. but also accept him
e. as well as accepting him


1. General Pattern (Bentuk Umum)
 NOUN + Clause / Phrase

2. Uses (Penggunaan)
Noun modifiers is used to tell us which person  or thing (digunakan untuk menerangkan orang/benda yang sedang dibicarakan).
Example :
I don’t want a book with torn cover
The boy sleeping on the carpet is my brother
The letter the postman just delivered isn’t for me
The food on the table has been prepared for the guest.

A. Combine these pairs of sentences
E.g.   I have lost the book
I borrowed from you
I’ve lost the book I borrowed from you

1. 1. The glasses are not ready
You ordered them

2. Those people couldn’t come
We invited them to spend the weekend with us.
3. The picture was painted by my brother
It is on the wall.

4. The hose has been sold
It was built on the hill

5. The phone number is 252333
You were asking about it.

6. A dictionary was a kind of book.
People look sup words in it.

7. The girl has just left.
You want to see her.

8. The man is my brother.
He is reading Al-Quran.

9. The book is very expensive.
I want to buy it.

10. The bag is on the table.
You are looking for it.

B. Change the following sentences
E.g. I know the man who is standing over there
 I know the man standing over there
 Food that is kept in a freezer will stay good for several months
 Food kept in the freezer will stay good for several months.

1. Who is the man who is standing in front of the shop.

2. The forms that were sent to our school never arrived

3. a road that was opened last night had to be closed again for repairs.

4. The number of the new cars that were sold in this country fell by 25%last month.

5. The men who are working in our house have been there for nearly three months

6. Clothes that are made of artificial fibers often feel uncomfortable in hot weather.

7. Not many of the people who were invited turned up.

8. Money that is lying on the table is your change.

9. A lot of things that are thought in school are useless.

10. The address list that was published last month is already out of date.

C. Complete the following sentences using the phrases / clauses as follows

a. who remembers   e. with a hat
b. attending to the customer
 f. standing there
c. sitting on the desk   g. riding on horseback
d. who is standing
1. An attractive woman …….. on her hair walked down the street.
2. She is only the girl ……… her father birthday’s.
3. The man ………. was waiting for her.
4. The girl ……… is the new student.
5. The boy …….. is a waiter.
6. The man …….. near the door is a guard.
7. The boy …….. in the field is my son.

Expressing Sadness, Pleasure and Love
Ø I‘m sorry to hear that
Ø How poor you are
Ø I’m extremely sorry to hear that
Ø It’s a somber January day I think
Ø He’s got to be miserable to see the tragedy

Ø I like listening the music
Ø I love it so much
Ø I really like those flowers

Ø It gave me a lot of pleasure to hear of your success
Ø Sounds great!
Ø It’s a great place to shop
Ø Yeah ! That’d be great
Ø The Planetarium is awesome
Ø Coo! I can’t wait to go

1. General Pattern (Bentuk Umum)
     WH-words / if / whether / that +Clause
‘WH-words : why, what, where, when, how, etc’.
2. Definition (Definisi)
A Noun Clause is used in the same way as any noun is used. It cannot stand by itself therefore always a part of a sentence. (Noun Clause digunakan untuk hal yang sama sebagaimana kata benda. Ia tidak dapat berdiri sendiri, sehingga merupakan bagian dari sebuah kalimat.)

Noun Clause digunakan sebagai :
· Subject
· Object
· Predicate Complement
· Object Complement

Example :  - Whoever works too hard will fell tired
- We have to support what he has decided
- The main goal is to hand in hand among the members
- I want to ask him where the American tourists are staying.
A. Complete these sentences
1. What are you going to buy ?
I forget what I am going to buy
2. What is her name ?
I can not remember ……............
3. Why was he late ?
He did not tell me ……...............
4. Where did they go last night ?
   I didn’t know ……......................
5. What are they talking about ?
He doesn’t hear ……...................
6. When will they go ?
Does their mother ask ……..........

B. Replace the Italicized word/s with the clause in the brackets
1. It is not known. (what she is going to do)
        What she is going to is not known.
2. Can you tell me your plan ? (what I have to do first)
3. Does he know the way ? (how he will get there)
4. It worried us. (why he did not send any letters)
5. It was so far. (the place they want to go)
6. They gave the winner a prize. (whoever won the game)
7. That is my school. (the place where I study everyday)

C. Complete the sentences below with suitable ‘WH-words’
1. ……….. the girl had committed suicide was a complete mystery.
2. ………. they are discussing now is to decide ……. to find a good location for the camping
3. The participants strongly argued about ……. would be chosen leader of the project
4. ……… I must do now is to finis the kitchen work
5. We have no idea about ……. to leave the village
6. Can you tell me …….. you will submit your assignment ?
7. ……… he had done was really a great success.
8. I could understand ……. she refused my invitation.
9. ……… to find the solution over this matter become the main priority of the meeting
10. I don’t know …… he quit from his occupation.

D. Complete the sentences by changing question to Noun Clause
1. Who is he ? I don’t know …….............................................
2. Whose book is that? Do you know……...............................?
3. Does the bus stop here ? I wonder ………............................
4. Can Ahmad speak Arabic ? I want to know …….................
5. Is Budi going to here tomorrow. I know ………...................
6. What time is it ? I don’t know ………..................................
7. How old is Andi ? I wonder ………......................................
8. How much does this book cost ? Do you know …...............?
9. Where did Idris go ? Can you tell me ……… .....................?
10. Should I buy this book ? He asked me …….........................

Expressing Annoyance, Fear, Anger, and Anxiety

I. The following are some ways to express annoyance
It’s annoying ..... (when....)
Don’t annoy me please.

II. The following are some ways to express anger
I’m really angry .....
I can’t take this anymore
You’re such a pain in the neck

III. The following are some ways to express fear
I’m afraid ....
I have fears for her safety

IV. The following are some ways to express anxiety
I’m anxious .....
I’m afraid .....
I’m so scared .....
God .... what is this ?

Expressing Sadness, Pleasure and Love
Ø I‘m sorry to hear that
Ø How poor you are
Ø I’m extremely sorry to hear that
Ø It’s a somber January day I think
Ø He’s got to be miserable to see the tragedy

Ø I like listening the music
Ø I love it so much
Ø I really like those flowers

Ø It gave me a lot of pleasure to hear of your success
Ø Sounds great!
Ø It’s a great place to shop
Ø Yeah ! That’d be great
Ø The Planetarium is awesome
Ø Coo! I can’t wait to go
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